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Types Of Myositis

Types of myositis


Polymyositis typically affects the muscles closest to the trunk, particularly those in your hips, thighs, shoulders, upper arms and neck. The weakness is symmetrical, meaning it involves muscles on both the left and right sides of your body.

Polymyositis signs and symptoms include:

  • Progressive muscle weakness
  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Mild joint or muscle tenderness
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath

The disease worsens over time. As muscle weakness progresses, you might find it difficult to climb stairs, rise from a seated position, lift objects or reach overhead.

When to see a doctor
If you develop signs and symptoms associated with polymyositis, see your doctor for an evaluation and diagnosis. If you've already been diagnosed with the condition, contact your doctor if new symptoms occur or if existing symptoms worsen.


  • Appearance of a rash on the eyelids, cheeks, nose, back, upper chest, elbows, knees and knuckles
  • Scaly, dry or rough skin
  • Trouble rising from a seated position, or getting up after a fall
  • General tiredness


  • Painful and/or itchy rash caused by inflammation of blood vessels under the skin and in the muscles
  • Sudden or progressive weakness in muscles in neck, hip, back and shoulder muscles
  • Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), a feeling of choking
  • Hardened lumps or sheets of calcium, called calcinosis, under the skin
  • Changes in voice (dysphonia), especially hoarseness

Inclusion-body myositis

Inclusion-body myositis (IBM) is found in more men than women with onset usually occurring after age 50. A small number of IBM cases may be hereditary (h-IBM) but most are “sporadic” (s-IBM) meaning there is not a direct genetic link. In most cases, IBM progresses slowly over months or years. There is currently no effective treatment for IBM.

  • Frequent falling episodes
  • Trouble climbing stairs or standing from a seated position
  • A foot that seems to drop when walking, causing tripping
  • Weakened hand grip
  • Difficulty swallowing

  • Weakness and noticeable shrinking of the quadriceps (main muscle of the thighs), causing falls
  • Weakness in the forearm muscles
  • Weakness of muscles below the knees, causing the foot to drop and toes to catch when walking
  • Weakness of flexor muscles of the fingers used for gripping
  • Weakness of throat muscles, causing trouble swallowing (dysphagia) and possibly choking
  • Pain or discomfort as muscles weaken

Juvenile dermatomyositis

Juvenile Myositis is found in children under the age of 18. Juvenile dermatomyositis is a disease marked by muscle weakness and skin rash. The other form of myositis that can occur in children – juvenile polymyositis – is extremely rare.


  • Visible, reddish-purple rash over the eyelids or joints
  • General tiredness
  • Moodiness or irritability
  • Complaints of tummy aches
  • Trouble climbing stairs or onto a bus; standing from a seated position; getting dressed
  • Difficulty reaching up, like to shampoo or comb hair
  • Trouble lifting the head


  • Characteristic reddish-purple rashes (bumps found over the knuckles, elbows and knees) and heliotrope rash (purplish rash around the eyes)
  • Gradual muscle weakness, most often of those closest to the body like neck, stomach, upper arms and legs
  • Hardened lumps or sheets of calcium (calcinosis) under the skin
  • Trouble swallowing (dysphagia)
  • Hoarse-sounding voice
  • Stomach problems




By Mayo Clinic staff

Medications. The Myositis Association.; Accessed August 03, 2011.

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Images of Syptoms and Signs

Skin inflamation

Face inflamation

Finger's skin swell

weak limbs and back muscles